Teachers’ Beliefs about Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) and the Implementation in Classroom Practices

Trifita Setyaningrum

Abstract


Abstract: This study aims at investigating the match between beliefs and classroom practices about communicative language teaching (CLT). Survey design through questionnaire for professional teachers of English and guided interviews is employed in this study. The 25 questionnaire items revealed the teachers’ belief about CLT and the classroom practices based on its characteristics, i.e.: overall goals, relationship of form and function, fluency-accuracy, focus on real-world contexts, autonomy and strategic involvement, teacher roles, and student roles. The data were gathered, reduced, grouped, and verified. The results showed that the highest discrepancy is on the aspect of fluency-accuracy.

Key Words: teacher’s belief, communicative language teaching, classroom practices

Abstrak: Penelitian ini menganalisa kesesuaian antara kepercayaan terhadap pembelajaran komunikatif (CLT) dan penerapannya. Data diperoleh melalui survei dengan kuesioner yang ditujukan kepada guru Bahasa Inggris profesional dan interview sebagai konfirmasi. 25 pernyataan kuesioner menunjukkan kepercayaan guru terhadap pembelajaran komunikatif dan penerapannya di dalam proses pembelajaran. Kuesioner ini disusun berdasarkan 7 karakteristik pembelajaran komunikatif: tujuan menyeluruh, hubungan bentuk dan fungsi Bahasa, ketepatan dan kelancaran, penerapan di dunia nyata, keterlibatan dan strategi belajar individu, peran guru, dan peran siswa. Data yang terkumpul dikelompokkan dan dicocokkan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ketidaksesuaian penerapan prinsip CLT dalam proses pembelajaran terutama dalam aspek ketepatan dan kelancaran.

Kata kunci: keyakinan guru, pembelajaran komunikatif, praktik kelas


Keywords


teacher’s belief; communicative language teaching; classroom practices

Full Text:

PDF

References


Brown, H.D. & Lee, H. (2015). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy Fourth Edition. New York: Pearson Education Inc.

Canh, L.V. (2011). Form-Focused Instruction: A Case Study of Vietnamese Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. Unpublished doctoral thesis. New Zealand: Faculty of Art and Social Sciences, The University of Waikato.

Carless, D. R. (2001). Curriculum Innovation in the Primary EFL classroom : Case studies of three teachers implementing Hong Kong ’ s Target-Oriented Curriculum ( TOC ).

Celce-Murcia, M., Dornyei, Z., & Thurrell, S. (1995). Communicative competence: A pedagogically motivated model with content specifications. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6(2), 5–35.

Choi, S. (1999). Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Korean Middle Schools: Exploration of Communicative Language Teaching through Teachers’ Beliefs and Self-Reported Classroom Teaching Practices. Graduate School, PhD thesis, 126 pages. Retrieved from http://etd.ohiolink.edu/view.cgi/Choi Seonghee.pdf?acc_num=osu1220381940

Decker, L. E., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2007). Personality Characteristics and Teacher Beliefs among Pre-Service Teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 35(2), 45–64. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ817310&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ817310

Farrell, T. S. C., & Yang, D. (2017). Exploring an EAP Teacher’s Beliefs and Practices in Teaching L2 Speaking: A Case Study. RELC Journal, 003368821773014. https://doi.org/10.1177/0033688217730144

Fauzi, A., Damayanti, D., & Ilahi, T. (2012). A Teacher’s Beliefs on the Integration of Video Technology in Teaching Speaking: A Case Study. International Journal of Pedagogy and Teacher Education (IJPTE), 11(1), 46–54.

Fayyaz, S., & Omar, H. M. (2014). A Study of Contextual Situatedness of English Language Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices about the Form-focused Instruction: A Case Study in Sandakan District, Sabah. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 134, 201–212. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.240

Fives, H., & Buehl, M. M. (2016). Teachers’ Beliefs, in the Context of Policy Reform. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 114–121. https://doi.org/10.1177/2372732215623554

Gandeel, A. M. (2016). English Language Teachers ’ Beliefs and Practi c e s regarding the Teaching of Speaking, (August).

Gilakjani, A. P., & Sabouri, N. B. (2017). Teachers’ Beliefs in English Language Teaching and Learning: A Review of the Literature. English Language Teaching, 10(4), 78. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v10n4p78

Gudu, B. (2015). Teaching Speaking Skills in English Language Using Classroom Activities in Secondary School Level in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(35), 55–63. Retrieved from http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1086371

Heng, K. (2014). Communicative Language Teaching in EFL Contexts: Challenges and Suggestions for Successful Implementation. Unpublished dissertation. Canberra: Faculty of Arts and Design, University of Canberra.

Hiep, P. H. (2007). Communicative language teaching: Unity within diversity. ELT Journal, 61(3), 193–201. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccm026

Hill, D. & Miller, K. B. (2013). Classroom Instruction that Works with English Language Learners Second Edition, (Online), (http://www.ascd.org/ascd/pdf/siteascd/publications/books/citworks-ell-2nded-excerpts.pdf, accessed on February 28, 2018).

Horwitz, E. K. (1985). Using Student Beliefs About Language Learning and Teaching in the Foreign Language Methods Course. Foreign Language Annals, 18(4), 333–340. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1944-9720.1985.tb01811.x

Irawati, I. (2014). Improving Student ’ S Speakingability Through Communicative Language Games, (87), 25–36.

Juhász, A. (2015). The Conceptualization of Communicative Competence in Secondary EFL Classrooms in Hungary.

Karavas-Doukas, E. (1996). Using attitude scales to investigate teachers’ attitudes to the communicative approach. ELT Journal, 50(3), 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/50.3.187

Kunter, M., Klusmann, U., Baumert, J., Richter, D., Voss, T., & Hachfeld, A. (2013). Professional competence of teachers: Effects on instructional quality and student development. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 805–820. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032583

Lashgari, M., Jamali, F., & Yousofi, N. (2014). Investigating EFL Teachers ’ Attitudes toward CLT. International Journal of Basic Sciences & Applied Research, 3(3), 160–164.

Lü, C., & Lavadenz, M. (2014). Native Chinese-Speaking K-12 Language Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. Foreign Language Annals, 47(4), 630–652. https://doi.org/10.1111/flan.12111

Markee, N. (1993). Second Language Acquisition Research : A Resource for Changing Teachers ’ Professional Cultures ?

Maryslessor, A. O., Barasa, P. L., & Omulando, C. A. (2014). Challenges Teachers Face in the Use of the Communicative Language Teaching Approach in the Teaching Listening and Speaking Lessons in Lugrari District , Kenya. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), 3(9), 83–92.

Methitham, P. (2014). Survey the Landscape of Elt in Thailand :, 26–34.

Nishino, T. (2009). Communicative Language Teaching in Japanese High Schools: Teachers’ Beliefs and Classroom Practices, 1–348.

Nishino, T. (2012). Modeling Teacher Beliefs and Practices in Context: A Multimethods Approach. Modern Language Journal, 96(3), 380–399. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4781.2012.01364.x

NUNAN. (1989). Designing_Tasks_for_the_Communicative_Classroom__Nunan_D..pdf. (n.d.).

Nunan, D. (1991). Language Teaching Methodology: A textbook for teachers.

Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ Beliefs and Educational Research: Cleaning Up a Messy Construct. Review of Educational Research, 62(3), 307–332. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543062003307

Peláez, G., & Elizabeth, M. (2008). English Teachers ’ Beliefs about Communicative Competence and their Relationship with their Classroom Practices Creencias de los profesores de inglés sobre la competencia comunicativa y su relación con sus prácticas de clase. English, 75–89.

Radzi, M., Azmin, M., Zolhani, H. & Latif, A. (2007). Adopting Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Approach to Enhance Oral Competencies Among Students: Teachers’ Attitudes and Beliefs, (Online), (http://repo.uum.edu.my/3251/1/Ai.pdf accessed on February 5, 2018).

Richards, C. and Rodgers, S. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ridge, E. (1994). Communicative Language Teaching: Some of The Challenges for Teacher Trainers in South Africa, (Online), (http://perlinguam.journals.ac.za accessed on January 5, 2018).

Roy, S., & Candidate, P. D. (2016). Challenges to Implementing Communicative Language Teaching ( CLT ) in Bangladesh, 16(March), 218–235.

Savignon, J. & Berns, M. (2006). Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics: Communicative Language Teaching. Pennsylvania: University Park.

Smith, R., Kuchah, K., Lamb, M., & Chik, A., et al. (eds.). (2018). Autonomy in Language Learning and Teaching (Ch. 2., pp. 7-27). (Online), (https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-52998-5_2 accessed on August 5, 2018)

Talley, P. C., & Tu, H.-L. (2014). Implicit and Explicit Teaching of English Speaking in the EFL Classroom. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(6), 38–46.

Tayjasanant, C., & Barnard, R. (2010). Language Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices Regarding the Appropriateness of Communicative Methodology: A Case Study from Thailand. The Journal of Asia TEFL, 7(2), 279–311.

Thomas, M. (2013). Teachers’ Beliefs about Classroom Teaching – Teachers’ Knowledge and Teaching Approaches. ScienceDirect, (89): 31-39. DOI: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.805.

Tleuov, A. (2016). The teaching of speaking : An investigation into the relationship between teachers ’ beliefs and practices in Kazakhstani state secondary school EFL classrooms.(PhD’sThesis).

Uysel, H., & Bardakci, M. (2014). Teacher beliefs and practices of grammar teaching: focusing on meaning, form, or forms? South African Journal of Education, 34(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.4314/saje.v34i1.

Uztosun, S. (2013). An Interpretive Study into Elementary School English Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices in Turkey. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry, 4(1), 20-33. Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED541922.pdf.




Copyright (c) 2019 Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.


Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora

Education Journal Of Social Sciences

Graduate School Of Universitas Negeri Malang

Lisensi Creative Commons

JPH is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License